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Causes and effects of human migration
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intent to settle
Causes: In preindustrial societies, environmental factors, such as the need for resources due to overpopulation, were often the cause of migration
Effects: As people migrated, they brought new plants, animals, and technologies that had effects on the environment
Causes of migration
Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intention of settling in the new location. When large numbers of people relocate, historians ask questions about why these people moved and what impacts their movements had.
Broadly speaking, there are two categories of factors that influence people’s decisions to migrate. Push factors occur where someone is currently living and make continuing to live there less attractive. A push factor could be political unrest, a lack of job opportunities, or overcrowding. Pull factors occur in a potential destination and make it an attractive place to migrate to. A pull factor could be better job opportunities or having relatives or friends who have already moved to this location.
Causes of migration in Africa
In the preindustrial era, environmental factors like droughts, natural disasters, and climate all influenced human decisions about where to migrate. The expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples through Central Africa illustrates this relationship between environment and migration. Before we look at the movement of Bantu people, it is important to note that Bantu does not refer to a single community of people. It is a language family whose speakers also shared many cultural practices. There are several hundred distinct Bantu languages, of which Swahili is most widely spoken today.
People speaking Bantu languages spread from West Africa throughout Central and Southern Africa starting around 2000 BCE—see the first map below, where yellow depicts regions containing predominantly Bantu-speakers. Bantu-speakers migrated to and settled in places where the climate was well-suited to Bantu agricultural practices - see second map below.
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