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What were the causes of Bantu Migration and their effects

asked : 1 year, 1 month ago General History

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admin posted an answer
1 year, 1 month ago

The reasons for the Bantu migrations are unknown to many, but they most likely include these listed below:
Drying up of the Sahara grasslands which led groups that practiced agriculture to migrate in search of new fertile land and water for farming.(Drought and Famine)
An increase in population which resulted in pressures causing others to migrate in search for new land.
The constant attacks from stronger neighboring tribes in West Africa and the Nile valley and the external pressures such as the migration of the Arabs into West Africa.
Rulers wanted to expand their kingdoms, and gain more power and control.
Tribal wars caused defeated tribes to run away from powerful ones for safety.
The Bantu people wanted to expand their iron-working culture. They had discovered the knowledge of iron working and had invented iron tools which transformed agriculture by making the clearing of land faster and more efficient.
Visitor 1542029294 posted an answer
1 year, 1 month ago

Positive impacts
Introduction of iron working: they introduced iron-working and the use of iron tools throughout much of Africa, and when iron-smelting started, there was an increase in food production.
Introduction of new crops e.g. yams, bananas: the Bantu increased their knowledge of food and crop cultivation. Earlier on in Africa, the inhabitants were hunters and gatherers, but with iron smelting, food production began.
They introduced centralized administration: They introduced a centralized system of government where the king acted as the overall ruler, under whom were the other chiefs.
Interaction with other tribes: The Bantu language became widespread in East Africa.
Introduced a system of building permanent homes: The opening of new land to raise families, and setup villages and clans.
Defense: The knowledge of iron smelting led to the making of bows, arrows and spears for defense and protection.
Unified regions: Migrations led to a rise of large states and bigger tribes in East Africa, e.g. the Baganda, Kikuyu, Nyamwezi. e.t.c


Negative impacts
Depopulation: This was caused by the frequent attacks made by the Bantu against the people in East Africa for land through wars.
Loss of culture: Cultural absorption resulted in the loss of culture. Also, Bantu intermarrying with the non- Bantu peoples was a factor.

Outcome:
The Bantu migration being the largest migration in history, influenced two thirds of African language. By the end of the first millennium divisions had formed. There was a difference between the rich and poor, as well as with men and women. The Bantu were the first to develop language and provide historians with an idea about Africa's civilizations. The Bantu were also the first farmers and cattle-keepers.
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